1. What Amazon’s chief health officer says is the biggest workplace health challenge of the century

2. COVID-19 reinfection likely for unvaccinated, study suggests

”…”Reinfection can reasonably happen in three months or less… “Therefore, those who have been naturally infected should get vaccinated. Previous infection alone can offer very little long-term protection against subsequent infections…Researchers also predicted reinfection will become “increasingly common” as COVID-19 transitions into an endemic disease. 


Uncomfortable Truths — What Covid-19 Has Revealed about Chronic-Disease Care in America

(J. Harris: A comprehensive review of the state of medical care in the US with suggestions for needed improvements. Readable.)

”…Covid-19 also made us walk backward and see the larger worldview, in the process revealing uncomfortable truths about the U.S. health care system — including our approach to managing chronic diseases…”

The Flawed Science of Antibody Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Immunity

(J. Harris: A very readable summary of Covid related antibodies and questions. I edited it a little. A few readers are interested in this area of study.)

”…“Individuals can have neutralizing antibodies and still get infected,…. “We know that higher antibody levels, specifically higher neutralizing antibody levels, are better. But we don’t know how high is high enough….So far, only one commercially available SARS-CoV-2 antibody test, from Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, has been calibrated to the World Health Organization’s reference standard… the test sold through Epitome Risk Solutions’ subsidiary, FourthWall Testing, appeared to be an at-home version of the FDA-authorized GenScript cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit, a surrogate assay that indirectly measures neutralizing antibodies. According to an FDA spokesperson, the cPass test does not have authorization for sample collection at home. And despite Epitome’s marketing hype, GenScript states that customers “should not interpret the results of this test as an indication or degree of immunity or protection from reinfection….[Actually],The immunological component that is associated with protection against severe disease is immunological memory B cells,.. “These cells aren’t making antibodies, but they remember that they have seen this SARS-CoV-2 spike protein before….circulating antibodies against the virus peak 2 or 3 months after natural infection or vaccination and then begin to decrease. But the immune system’s ability to mount a defense lasts longer. “Just because we’re seeing a decrease in antibody levels doesn’t necessarily mean that your immunity is gone,…We know from a lot of studies now that your memory T cells and memory B cells persist for at least 6 to 8 months and continue to evolve and mature, and none of that information is relayed by an antibody test….that reinfection with the virus activates memory B cells to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. Because this process can take 3 to 5 days, it doesn’t stop SARS-CoV-2 infections from occurring, but it does help tamp down severe COVID-19. And that’s a success story….“The goal of the vaccine is to protect you against serious illness….Managing expectations for COVID-19 vaccines may be in order. “I think there was maybe an initial misunderstanding amongst the public that this would just halt all infections, and that’s just not the case,…     Ultimately…advice for avoiding a SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first place comes down to a now-familiar combination of measures: “getting vaccinated, frequently washing your hands, wearing a mask, and avoiding high congregate in-door settings, particularly in areas that have high case rates….”



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